FAQ's

FAQ's



A. Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying. Or, six months, if a woman is 35 years of age or older. Women who can get pregnant but are unable to stay pregnant may also be infertile.
Pregnancy is the result of a process that has many steps. To get pregnant-
i.)  A woman's body must release an egg from one of her ovaries (ovulation).
ii.)  The egg must go through a fallopian tube toward the uterus (womb).
iii.)  A man's sperm must join with (fertilize) the egg along the way.
iv.)  The fertilized egg must attach to the inside of the uterus (implantation). Infertility can happen if there are problems with any of these steps.

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A. No, infertility is not always a woman's problem. Both women and men can have problems that cause infertility. About one-third of infertility cases are caused by women's problems. Another one third of fertility problems are due to the man. The other cases are caused by a mixture of male and female problems or by unknown problems.

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A. Infertility in men is most often caused by-
i.)  A problem called varicocele (VAIR-ih-koh-seel). This happens when the veins on a man's testicle(s) are too large. This heats the testicles. The heat can affect the number or shape of the sperm.
ii.)  Other factors that cause a man to make too few sperm or none at all.
iii.)  Movement of the sperm. This may be caused by the shape of the sperm. Sometimes injuries or other damage to the reproductive system block the sperm.
Sometimes a man is born with the problems that affect his sperm. Other times problems start later in life due to illness or injury. For example, cystic fibrosis often causes infertility in men.

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A. Most cases of female infertility are caused by problems with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual period.
Ovulation problems are often caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a hormone imbalance problem which can interfere with normal ovulation. PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility. Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is another cause of ovulation problems. POI occurs when a woman's ovaries stop working normally before she is 40. POI is not the same as early menopause.
Less common causes of fertility problems in women include-
i.)  Blocked fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or surgery for an ectopic pregnancy
ii.)  Physical problems with the uterus
iii.)  Uterine fibroids, which are non-cancerous clumps of tissue and muscle on the walls of the uterus.

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A. IVF was originally developed for women with blocked tubes or missing fallopian tubes and it is still the procedure of choice for these situations. It is also used when other conditions are present, including endometriosis, male factor infertility and unexplained infertility in which no medical cause for infertility can be found. Our physicians will review your history and help to guide you to the treatment and diagnostic procedures that are most appropriate for you.

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A. Many women are waiting until their 30s and 40s to have children. In fact, about 20% of women in the United States now have their first child after age 35. So age is a growing cause of fertility problems. About one-third of couples in which the woman is older than 35 years have fertility problems.
Aging decreases a woman's chances of having a baby in the following ways-
i.)  Her ovaries become less able to release eggs.
ii.)  She has a smaller number of eggs left.
iii.)  Her eggs are not as healthy.
iv.)  She is more likely to have health conditions that can cause fertility problems.
v.)  She is more likely to have a miscarriage.

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A. The length of time that you will be taking the injections will depend on the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol chosen for you at our Clinic. Typically, patients receive injections for 7 to 10 days, but some must take them for a little longer.

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A. No, not generally. It lasts approximately 20 to 30 minutes, and IV sedation is administered by a certified MD anesthesiologist so that you will not be awake. Some patients have mild cramping after the procedure and are discharged with safe pain medication.

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A. With the advent of newer fertility medications, many injections that were given intramuscularly can now be replaced by medications given as a little injection under the skin (subcutaneous). This method is similar to insulin injections of diabetic patients. Additionally one medication, which has been given as a subcutaneous injection (Lupron), can be replaced by a medication administered as a nasal spray (Synarel). Both medications are equally effective, and we leave this choice to you. There is only a one-time injection that is currently given intramuscularly (HCG), but this will soon be replaced by a subcutaneous preparation (available in early 2001).
Once the egg retrieval is performed, progesterone supplementation is used to prepare the lining of the uterus for the transfer of embryos. For most of our treatment cycles, we recommend using progesterone gel or suppositories. This protocol makes it possible to avoid injections during the second half of your IVF cycle.

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A. Women who are unable to produce healthy eggs, but have a healthy uterus are candidates for egg donation with IVF.

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A. The doctor will make the decision after discussing this with you. Generally, two or three embryos will be transferred, but the number may vary slightly depending on the quality of the embryos and the age of the female partner.

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A. After embryo transfer, we ask that you refrain from intercourse until your pregnancy test, which is approximately 14 days later. If you are pregnant, as long as you are not experiencing bleeding or discomfort, intercourse is okay after we are able to detect the baby's heartbeat. This will be approximately two weeks after your positive pregnancy test.

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A. A woman who accepts to bear (or be pregnant with) the child of another woman who is incapable of becoming pregnant using her own uterus is called a gestational carrier. Women who need gestational carriers with IVF include those who do not have a uterus, have an abnormal uterine cavity, have had several recurrent miscarriages or have had recurrent, failed IVF cycles. "Surrogate" is an older term for what we now refer to as a "gestational carrier".

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